Reform of the state-owned enterprise sector in Morocco has undergone three distinct phases: 1) structural reforms in the 1980s, 2) modernisation of th. As under the French system, an investigating judge investigates serious offences and can remand a suspect into pre-trial custody. Regions are administered by a Wali (governor), appointed by the King, and a regional council, elected by direct universal suffrage. The most important subdivision of the MP turned out to be the MCPD, which merged with an Islamist party, Reform and Renewal (Réforme et Renouvellement), led by Abdelilah Benkirane in June 1996 (in 1998 the name was changed to PJD). He earned a BA in law at Rabat-Agdal University and a PhD in law from the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, where he wrote his thesis on EEC-Maghrib relations. The 2011 US State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in Morocco reported that corruption and the abuse of detainees were widespread among both National Security officers and gendarmes, undermining law enforcement and the judicial system. Parliament passes laws: legislative bills are submitted to both chambers, and if they do not adopt an identical text, the government sets up a joint committee with equal representation to establish it. Comments are welcome: please provide comments to cignag@ebrd.com 2 This Report does not constitute legal advice. Avec 189 États membres, des collaborateurs issus de plus de 170 pays et plus de 130 antennes à travers le monde, le Groupe de la Banque mondiale est un partenariat sans équivalent : cinq institutions œuvrant de concert à la recherche de solutions durables pour réduire la pauvreté et favoriser le partage de la prospérité dans les … The Army’s main battle tanks are 220 US-made M6001A, although there are still 40 Soviet-era T-72 tanks on the books. … Morocco. A taoutiq judge (who handles notary issues and issues concerning minors), assisted by aduls (religiously-trained clerks), applies the personal law in the first-instance court. Authenticity and Modernity Party First-instance courts hear civil cases related to persons or inheritances, and to social and commercial laws. In 2003, terrorist crimes were added to the list, but the penalty has not been carried out since 1993 (although by August 2008 there were 150 prisoners on death row). The Authenticity and Modernity Party (PAM) was founded in August 2009 by Fouad Ali el-Himma, a close friend of King Mohammed VI and a palace advisor. It also appoints the administrative heads of government departments, the presidents of universities, and the heads of other institutions of higher education. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. This area of Morocco … According to the Constitution, Parliament exercises legislative power and can validate the authority of the government. The general opinion of the judicial system is low, partly because there is such a high level of illiteracy. The Navy is the poor relation of the services: it has some modern French-built frigates, but its main fleet consists of aging patrol and coastal craft that cannot prevent fast boat smuggling across the Mediterranean. Within the framework of the Morocco Country Programme and the implementation of the "Advanced Regionalisation Process", the MENA-OECD Governance Programme has contributed to improving the quality of local-level policies and strengthening citizens' trust in governance.Strategic assistance was provided to achieve three … This study analyses initiatives undertaken in Morocco to support the management of critical risks. The conservative Independence Party trailed in third place with 43 seats. The underlying reason seems to have been to provide a possible solution to the Western Sahara question. The party won the municipal elections in 2009, and, with 47 seats, came fourth in the 2011 parliamentary elections. The person in this position serves as a secular leader as well as the Leader of the Faithful, a title often used by Muslim rulers to indicate direct relation to the Prophet Mohammed. Most equipment has recently come from the United States; before that, the main supplier was France. In Morocco, internal demands for institutional reform backed by popular support have become a major lever in assisting to establish good governance in the country since early 2011. FEATURE STORY. Article 4 of the preceding (1996) Constitution said exactly the same thing, as did every previous Constitution (1992, 1972, 1970, and 1960), but the rule of law during the reign of his father was extremely circumscribed. The judicial system was subjected to interference by the authorities in political cases, and dissidents were arrested, held incommunicado for long periods, and tortured. Legal System Tensions are already mounting between the main political parties. Human Rights in Morocco. Local governance at a glance The local government structure comprises 16 regions, provinces and prefectures, and urban and rural communes (Rao and Chakraborty, 2006). Most of the population cannot afford legal services, as the average lawyer’s fee is equivalent to two to four weeks of the minimum wage. In February 2010, a royal directive outlined a plan to modernize and professionalize the National Security by improving the quality of recruits and reducing corruption, with increased investigation, prosecution, and training – including a human-rights component – for security personnel. As UN Climate Change Conference in Marrakech Approaches, What is the State of Morocco’s National Security? He could not resist European pressure and agreed to accept a protectorate, although the French authorities removed him as sultan. There are also specialized tribunals: a commercial court system that hears commercial cases involving large sums, with its own system of appeals; administrative courts that deal with initial cases involving the public authorities; independent audit courts that operate at the central and regional levels; and a separate Standing Tribunal of the Royal Armed Forces. Parliament and political parties were reduced to marginal roles, and there were severe constraints on the media. Fanack provides an … By bringing together a multitude of OECD instruments and expertise in different areas of public governance… Ensuring governance reform in Morocco … The Open Government Review of Morocco is the first of its kind analysing a country’s open government policies and practices and their institutional and legal frameworks for implementation against OECD instruments. OECD Public Governance Reviews; Open Government in Salé, Morocco OECD Public Governance Reviews This series includes international studies and country-specific reviews of government efforts to make the public sector more efficient, effective, innovative and responsive to citizens’ needs and expectations. The United States Government, through USAID, is working closely with different political actors – political parties, government entities, civil society organizations (CSO), and civil society as a whole – to help them build their capacities, facilitate citizen participation, and ensure sustainable participatory governance. Economy . Constitutionality has a legitimizing role in Morocco, but so does monarchy. In the end, the sultan, after changing his title to ‘King’ in 1956, won the post-independence struggle for power. Offically a parliamentary constitutional democracy, in … It covers steps taken by central government and local authorities, research centres… The first political parties were founded during the Protectorate, before World War II. However, as the US State Department ‘Country Reports on Human Rights Practices‘ on Morocco for 2011 points out, courts often do not act independently in practice and are subject to corruption and extra-judicial influence. An initial answer would be that the country is still vulnerable for a number of reasons. Readers are advised to seek … Istiqlal was initially a grand coalition, but Ouezzani broke away to found the Democratic Independence Party (Parti Democratique et de l’Independence; PDI) in 1946, the same year that Ali Yata became the first Moroccan to lead the Communist Party of Morocco (Parti Communiste du Maroc, PC). Buy +/-/ 1000. The Constitutional Court has the task of ensuring that laws passed by Parliament are in conformity with the Constitution. In 2019, Morocco ranked 61 out of 137 countries included in the annual GFP review. That year, the number of people who reached military age was estimated at 604,533 personnel, while military expenditure was estimated at $3.4 billion. Matching expectations with opportunities for participation in civic life is also an important component in addressing security and stability in the country. Communal and district courts hear personal-estate actions against residents of their jurisdiction, again, under a certain sum. The October session is opened by the King. Other posts, especially in the economic field, are filled by the King. This would permit the operation of a local autonomy plan for the Western Sahara: the two Saharan provinces would be empowered to use local resources to develop the infrastructure and improve the economic conditions. Prophetic descent was reinforced by the ability to command force and exercise power. There was a great rivalry between the two. Women were first recruited as uniformed officers in 1997. Morocco’s military strength in 2019. The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) project reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for over 200 countries and territories over the period 1996–2018, for six dimensions of governance:Voice and AccountabilityPolitical Stability and Absence of ViolenceGovernment EffectivenessRegulatory QualityRule of LawControl of Corruption The Worldwide Governance … Corporate Governance in Transition Economies Morocco Country Report June 2016 Prepared by: Gian Piero Cigna Ahmed Meziou With the assistance of: Nestor Advisors . As a result, Morocco is currently experiencing a difficult political situation, characterized by a general m... Stay up to date with the weekly newsletter! The law protects this right’. That authority, baraka, is an inherited quality passed by genealogical descent from the founder of the Alaouite dynasty Moulay al-Cherif and his son Moulay al-Rashid (1666-1672), who seized power when the Saadi dynasty disintegrated in half a century of civil war. This is formalized in five codes that have been updated and revised at various times: Civil (1913), Penal (1962), Penal Procedure (1959), Commercial (1996), and Mudawana (for family law). Despite criticisms that PAM is a political tool for the monarchy, the party came in second in the 2016 parliamentary elections, obtaining 102 seats. The Moroccan army is notable for its large number of personnel and high level of training. Religious personal-status law was maintained as the responsibility of Sharia courts for Muslims and rabbinical courts for Jews. Other problems are the quality of legal personnel and difficulties of gaining access to the courts. The Ministry of Justice recognizes that the level of judicial competence is generally low, a consequence of the poor training of judges by the National Institute of Judicial Studies, which lacks staff and resources, and because of shortcomings in court internships. Morocco has made access to drinking water a priority for many years. An overview of human rights in Morocco. The current Prime Minister is Abdelilah Benkirane of the moderate Islamist Justice and Development Party (Parti de la Justice et du Développement, PJD). As part of the policy under the French Protectorate of dividing Arabs from Berbers, the French authorities installed a system of customary law in the Berber areas. The top level of local government is the region. Mounting Tensions Between Morocco’s Main Political Parties. The proposed policy has not yet been put into effect, although the constitutional basis for it was laid out in the 2011 Constitution (Section IX). The Government of Morocco has been criticized for a lack of effective resource governance, which has been mainly linked to an incomplete regulatory framework and insufficient disclosure policies (NRGI). Both chambers debate the government’s programme, but only the House of Representatives can vote it down. Link / Embed. Al-Fassi, Ouezzani, and others set up the National Action Bloc (Bloc d’Action National, BAN) and proposed a Plan of Reforms in 1934, which the French rejected. The Bloc was banned in 1937 and replaced by two parties, one headed by Ouezzani and the other by al-Fassi. READ online. He used his constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister (the leader of the largest party) and to approve and promulgate laws vigorously, repeatedly dissolved Parliament, rewrote the constitution several times, and rigged elections in favour of his supporters. According to Morocco’s Constitution, executive power is vested in the government, which consists of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet (Article 87). Mohammed V’s son, Hassan II, who ruled from 1961 until 1999, maintained the facade of a constitutional monarchy, but he was the master of his realm. The Open Government Review of Morocco is the first of its kind analysing a country’s open government policies and practices and their institutional and legal frameworks for implementation against OECD instruments. The Monarchy Political Parties Based on the Alexandria Protocol of 1944, the League of Arab States – commonly referred to as the Arab League – was founded in Cairo on 22 March 1945. As all the constitutions make clear, the head of state is the King (or Sultan, in 1908) who is ‘Commander of the Faithful’ (amir al-muminin). Four months after the parliamentary elections of 7 October 2016, Abdelilah Benkirane, leader of the winning Islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD), was unable to form the coalition government required by law. Among other actions, the country has adopted a series of legislative measures and institutional reforms to improve how water management is defined and regulated, remedy inequalities of access, protect water quantity and quality, and reuse it. This was a common model for early opponents of European imperialism in Africa and Asia. In August 2015, Morocco signed a deal with Russia to purchase its first submarine, an Amur-1650, worth $340 million. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the issues of governance in human rights organizations in Morocco. The military forces’ extensive combat experience in the Western Sahara has given them operational expertise in desert warfare and combined air-land warfare. Tweet. The 2011 Constitution, which was immediately the result of the Arab Spring movement, was the long-term consequence of this liberalizing trend. OECD iLibrary. Public Opinion Governance | Morocco News is a news reader (RSS reader) providing a summary of headlines and latest news stories disseminated in the reliable news sources from Morocco News. Interview with a Public Sector expert, Fabian Seiderer, on Governance in Morocco. The main light tanks are French (AMX-13) and Austrian (SK-105 Kürassier). Sultan Mohammed V was obliged to sign the Dahir, but it brought a storm of protest from Arab nationalists, who saw it as an attack on Islam, by degrading the Sharia. In 1913, a decree (dahir) took all but civil cases out of the hands of the qadis (religiously educated judges), and reorganized the administration of justice in both jurisdictions along French lines. The Communist Party was legalized in 1937 and grew through the trade unions. According to Article 6 of the 2011 Constitution, the law ‘is the supreme expression of the will of the Nation’. He notes an excessive focus on laws and institutional procedures that do not translate into the necessary transformation in the status of governance and the nature of the Moroccan political regime. By bringing together a multitude of OECD instruments and expertise in different areas of public governance, the Review provides Moroccan … Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window). The party has been led by Ilyas el-Omari since January 2016. The form of a constitutional monarchy was retained, and, towards the end of Hassan II’s reign and after the succession of his son Mohammed VI in 1999, the repression was eased. Royal family members claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad via his daughter Fatima, his son-in-law Ali Ibn Abu Talib, and their son Hassan. Good governance The constitution, which entered into force in 2011, establishes more stringent requirements in terms of good governance and the performance of public institutions. The corps of judges is also unrepresentative of Moroccan society. It has not fought a conventional interstate war since the Algerian wars of the early 1960s. Increasing European hegemony led religiously inspired nationalists to overthrow him and replace him with one of his brothers, Abdelhafid. Such a research faces methodological and practical impediments stemming from the paucity of information on funding and other governance … In this new paper, Mohamed Benhlal analyzes Morocco’s recent constitutional amendments, which seemed, on paper, to make significance progress towards good governance… He also spent time training in the office of Jacques Delors, when Delors was President of the European Commission. After 1912, the Protectorate slowly negotiated an end to the capitulation system; the British were the last major power to agree to end protected status in the French zone in 1937, but not in the Spanish zone, where the capitulations were renounced only at independence, in 1956. The Cabinet determines and implements public and foreign policy and oversees the passing of laws by Parliament. The system relies heavily on university academic performance: half the trainees have a law degree, and the rest have higher qualifications, but 80 percent have had no previous professional experience. As a result, many were muted in their criticism and positioned themselves in the political centre. Both dynasties claimed their legitimacy ultimately from descent from the Prophet Muhammad, but that was a very large cohort. Because of its history, Morocco has a dual legal system, under which civil legislation, based on the French code system, defines contract, commercial, administrative, and criminal law and provides the bases of codes of civil and criminal procedure, while Islamic law provides the basic structure governing personal, family, and succession issues. Source: GFP review. They included the National Rally of Independents (Rassemblement National des Indépendants, RNI; 1978), which backed away later from uncritical support of the King; the National Democratic Party (Parti National Démocratique PND; 1981), a centre-right party that split from the RNI; the Constitutional Union (Union Constitutionelle, UC; 1983), a centre-right party claiming to represent the post-independence generation; the Action Party (Parti de l’Action, PA; 1974), a Berber modernist party; and the Popular National Movement (Mouvement National Populaire, MNP; 1991), a centrist offshoot of the MP, led by one of its former leaders, Mahjoubi Aherdane.